Note: Any customs union, every common market, any economic union, the Customs and Monetary Union and the Economic and Monetary Union are also a free trade area. The following agreements with countries and trading blocs are expected to enter into force when existing EU trade agreements no longer apply to the UK from 1 January 2021. Turkey has bilateral and multilateral agreements: the EU has free trade agreements with 37 partners, including South Korea, Japan and Singapore, and free trade agreements with 43 partners, such as Canada and Ukraine, which are provisionally implemented. In May, the EU and Mexico also reached an agreement on modernising the existing agreement. Negotiations for new free trade agreements are underway with 19 countries, including Australia and New Zealand. A Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) is an agreement in which countries recognize the results of the other`s compliance assessment. In 2019, the European Union and Vietnam have agreed on a free trade agreement. The trade agreement includes a number of goods and services. The agreements set significant tariff reductions for food and beverage products, as well as the removal of a number of non-tariff barriers. The agreement also contains obligations on international workers` rights and protection, global environmental agreements and human rights. The European Union negotiates free trade agreements on behalf of all its member states, as EU member states have granted “exclusive jurisdiction” to conclude trade agreements.

Nevertheless, the governments of the Member States control every step of the process (through the Council of the European Union, whose members are the national ministers of each national government). However, negotiations on free trade agreements have become increasingly controversial in the general public. The transatlantic trade and investment partnership (TTIP) negotiations, the EU-US free trade agreement, are an example. Negotiations on the EU-Canada Free Trade Agreement (CETA) have also been controversial. Months of bitter struggle by political actors have seriously questioned the effectiveness and reliability of European trade policy decision-making and have undermined the EU`s international credibility and effectiveness. There are a number of negotiations with countries in the hope that a future free trade agreement can be concluded. Among the most important are Australia, New Zealand and Mercosur (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay) The Eurasian Economic Union, composed of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, has concluded the following free trade agreements. Switzerland (which has a customs union with Liechtenstein, which is sometimes contained in agreements) has bilateral agreements with the following countries and blocs:[41] Many EU trade agreements are still being ratified and are only being implemented temporarily. CETA is a mixed agreement.

Chapters under the exclusive competence of the Union are currently being applied on an interim basis, with ratification not yet completed in the Member States. On the other hand, the chapter on investment protection is not yet implemented until ratification by members. The EU and Singapore have negotiated a free trade agreement and an investment protection agreement, two separate treaties. The trade agreement came into force at the end of 2019, after the approval of the European Parliament and the Council. The investment protection agreement still needs to be ratified by all Member States according to their own national procedures. In mid-2019, the EU signed a trade agreement and an investment protection agreement with Vietnam. The free trade agreement with Vietnam was approved by the European Parliament in February 2020; Vietnam has already complied with EU requirements for compliance with international labour standards. The free trade agreement is expected to enter into force in the summer of 2020.

The People`s Republic of China has bilateral trade agreements with the blocs, countries and their two specific administrative regions:[13] [2] trade.ec.eur

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