The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan, signed on 10 January 1966, which resolved the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war. Peace was achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the external powers that pushed the two nations to the truce, lest the conflict intensify and attract other powers.   In India, the people also criticized the agreement because the Pakistani president and the Prime Minister of India did not sign a guerrilla pact in Kashmir. After the day of this declaration, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur died on the day of a sudden heart attack. After him, no one accepted this statement, and it was ignored by the next government. The declaration only ended the hostilities between India and Pakistan, but left the issue of Kashmir between the two, and neither side has been able to reach an agreement to date. However, the ceasefire was fragile and the conflict could have resumed at any time. The Soviet Union felt the need for a more binding agreement and proposed to act as a mediator, with the personal participation of Kosygin, President of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. According to The Memoirs of contemporaries, Kosygin played a crucial role in finding a solution to the Indo-Pakistani conflict, as he enjoyed the confidence of both sides.
The fiftieth anniversary of the Tashkent Declaration, an agreement ending hostilities between India and Pakistan, was celebrated on Sunday (January 10th). The declaration was signed in the Soviet Union after the mediation of Soviet diplomacy under the personal leadership of Alexei Kosygin, head of the Council of Ministers. This document is considered to be one of the best examples of the Soviet Union`s diplomatic mediation in world policy, even if the resulting peace did not last long. The agreement was negotiated by Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin, who had invited the parties to Tashkent. The parties agreed to remove all armed forces from positions that were occupied before August 5, 1965; Renewing diplomatic relations; and to discuss economic, refugee and other issues. The agreement was criticized in India because it contained no war pact or renouncement of guerrilla aggression in Kashmir. But the miracle happened. At lunchtime on 10 January, with the resolute efforts of Kosygin, supported by his dynamic Foreign Minister Andrej Gromyko, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan, despite the strong reservations of his Foreign Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, signed the historic declaration that brought peace to the subcontinent, albeit temporarily. But this was the story of Indo-Pakistani relations. News of the success in Tashkent was applauded in the country, but there were also hostile voices, including Jana Sangh and the socialist parties.
In his biography Lal Bahadur Shastri: A Life of Truth in Politics, C.P. Srivastava, who was a joint secretary to the Prime Minister and accompanied him to Tashkent, recorded a phone call between Venkataraman (PS in Delhi) and Sahai (PM`s PA in Tashkent): “While Venkataraman was still on the phone, the Prime Minister asked Sahai to know the reaction.