“We need a multilateral unit that can create green electricity blocks by consolidating and smoothing them and consolidating them with PDOs. For now, the process starts with a business buyer`s AAA. A central unit could turn any renewable energy production into tradable green electricity blocks. It would be difficult to overestimate the impact on the entire renewable energy market of the supply of renewable energy by companies, in particular through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In less than a decade, renewable energy produced from enterprise PPPs has grown from zero to more than 13 gigawatts in the United States alone. Microsoft is one of the largest players in this market, from a 110-megawatt wind project in Texas in 2013 to a portfolio of more than 1.2 gigawatts in six states and three continents. As a standalone VFA, a VFA isn`t overly complicated, but different regional markets could make it difficult to include it in a high trading volume, said Isern, of the Sustainable Power Group. “It`s unlikely to be a standard part of deal-making, but it can be a useful and frequently used tool.” The attribution of these risks is an essential element of the FTA negotiations. This risk allocation must be largely returned to the contract structure. For example, in a pay-as-production structure, the supplier bears the price, liquidity and profile risk, while the volume risk is shared, with the manufacturer being responsible in case of underproduction or overproduction. .

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